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Web21/09/ · Visual Studio includes component-based development tools, such as Visual C#, Visual J#, Visual Basic, and Visual C++, as well as a number of additional technologies to simplify team-based design, development, and deployment of your solutions WebThis was fixed in -fabi-version= SIMD vector types declared using __attribute ((vector_size)) were mangled in a non-standard way that does not allow for overloading of functions taking vectors of different sizes.. The mangling was changed in -fabi-version= __attribute ((const)) and noreturn were mangled as type qualifiers, and decltype of a WebPlace each function or data item into its own section in the output file if the target supports arbitrary sections. The name of the function or the name of the data item determines the section’s name in the output file. Use these options on systems where the linker can perform optimizations to improve locality of reference in the instruction WebMachine learning. Core ML adds new instruments and performance reports in Xcode, so you can analyze your ML-powered features. Optimize your Core ML integration with new Float16 data types, efficient output backings, sparse weight compression, in-memory model support, and new options to restrict compute to the CPU and Neural Engine.. In the Create ML Web14/12/ · This form of the if statement effectively combines together a call to isa and a call to cast into one statement, which is very convenient.. Note that the dyn_cast operator, like C++’s dynamic_cast or Java’s instanceof operator, can be abused. In particular, you should not use big chained if/then/else blocks to check for lots of different ... read more

Warn for calls to string manipulation functions such as memchr , or strcpy that are determined to read past the end of the source sequence. Do not warn for calls to bounded string manipulation functions such as strncat , strncpy , and stpncpy that may either truncate the copied string or leave the destination unchanged. In the following example, the call to strncat specifies a bound that is less than the length of the source string.

As a result, the copy of the source will be truncated and so the call is diagnosed. To avoid the warning use bufsize - strlen buf - 1 as the bound. As another example, the following call to strncpy results in copying to d just the characters preceding the terminating NUL, without appending the NUL to the end. Assuming the result of strncpy is necessarily a NUL-terminated string is a common mistake, and so the call is diagnosed. To avoid the warning when the result is not expected to be NUL-terminated, call memcpy instead.

In the following example, the call to strncpy specifies the size of the destination buffer as the bound. If the length of the source string is equal to or greater than this size the result of the copy will not be NUL-terminated. Therefore, the call is also diagnosed. To avoid the warning, specify sizeof buf - 1 as the bound and set the last element of the buffer to NUL. In situations where a character array is intended to store a sequence of bytes with no terminating NUL such an array may be annotated with attribute nonstring to avoid this warning.

Such arrays, however, are not suitable arguments to functions that expect NUL -terminated strings. To help detect accidental misuses of such arrays GCC issues warnings unless it can prove that the use is safe. See Common Variable Attributes. This option is effective only when level is bigger than 0. Otherwise, it will be ignored with a warning. Warn for cases where adding an attribute may be beneficial. The attributes currently supported are listed below.

Warn about functions that might be candidates for attributes pure , const or noreturn or malloc. The compiler only warns for functions visible in other compilation units or in the case of pure and const if it cannot prove that the function returns normally. This analysis requires option -fipa-pure-const , which is enabled by default at -O and higher.

Higher optimization levels improve the accuracy of the analysis. Warn about function pointers that might be candidates for format attributes. Note these are only possible candidates, not absolute ones.

GCC guesses that function pointers with format attributes that are used in assignment, initialization, parameter passing or return statements should have a corresponding format attribute in the resulting type.

the left-hand side of the assignment or initialization, the type of the parameter variable, or the return type of the containing function respectively should also have a format attribute to avoid the warning.

GCC also warns about function definitions that might be candidates for format attributes. Again, these are only possible candidates. GCC guesses that format attributes might be appropriate for any function that calls a function like vprintf or vscanf , but this might not always be the case, and some functions for which format attributes are appropriate may not be detected. Warn about functions that might be candidates for cold attribute.

Because the behavior of these functions when called with a zero size differs among implementations and in the case of realloc has been deprecated relying on it may result in subtle portability bugs and should be avoided. This option warns on calls to alloca with an integer argument whose value is either zero, or that is not bounded by a controlling predicate that limits its value to at most byte-size. It also warns for calls to alloca where the bound value is unknown.

Arguments of non-integer types are considered unbounded even if they appear to be constrained to the expected range. Unbounded uses, on the other hand, are uses of alloca with no controlling predicate constraining its integer argument. In the above example, n could be negative, causing a larger than expected argument to be implicitly cast into the alloca call. Do warn about implicit conversions from arithmetic operations even when conversion of the operands to the same type cannot change their values.

This affects warnings from -Wconversion , -Wfloat-conversion , and -Wsign-conversion. Warn about out of bounds subscripts or offsets into arrays. It is more effective when -ftree-vrp is active the default for -O2 and above but a subset of instances are issued even without optimization. As a result, out of bounds subscripts or offsets into zero-length arrays or one-element arrays are not warned by default. This is the default warning level of -Warray-bounds and is enabled by -Wall ; higher levels are not, and must be explicitly requested.

This warning level also warns about the intermediate results of pointer arithmetic that may yield out of bounds values. This warning level may give a larger number of false positives and is deactivated by default. Warn about equality and relational comparisons between two operands of array type.

Warn about redeclarations of functions involving arguments of array or pointer types of inconsistent kinds or forms, and enable the detection of out-of-bounds accesses to such parameters by warnings such as -Warray-bounds. If the first function declaration uses the array form the bound specified in the array is assumed to be the minimum number of elements expected to be provided in calls to the function and the maximum number of elements accessed by it.

Failing to provide arguments of sufficient size or accessing more than the maximum number of elements may be diagnosed by warnings such as -Warray-bounds. At level 1 the warning diagnoses inconsistencies involving array parameters declared using the T[static N] form. For example, the warning triggers for the following redeclarations because the first one allows an array of any size to be passed to f while the second one with the keyword static specifies that the array argument must have at least four elements.

At level 2 the warning also triggers for redeclarations involving any other inconsistency in array or pointer argument forms denoting array sizes. Pointers and arrays of unspecified bound are considered equivalent and do not trigger a warning. The -Wvla-parameter option triggers warnings for similar inconsistencies involving Variable Length Array arguments.

Warn about declarations using the alias and similar attributes whose target is incompatible with the type of the alias. See Declaring Attributes of Functions. The default warning level of the -Wattribute-alias option diagnoses incompatibilities between the type of the alias declaration and that of its target.

Such incompatibilities are typically indicative of bugs. At this level -Wattribute-alias also diagnoses cases where the attributes of the alias declaration are more restrictive than the attributes applied to its target.

These mismatches can potentially result in incorrect code generation. In other cases they may be benign and could be resolved simply by adding the missing attribute to the target. For comparison, see the -Wmissing-attributes option, which controls diagnostics when the alias declaration is less restrictive than the target, rather than more restrictive. This is the default. Warn about possibly misleading UTF-8 bidirectional control characters in comments, string literals, character constants, and identifiers.

Such characters can change left-to-right writing direction into right-to-left and vice versa , which can cause confusion between the logical order and visual order. This may be dangerous; for instance, it may seem that a piece of code is not commented out, whereas it in fact is. There are three levels of warning supported by GCC. By default, this warning does not warn about UCNs. For instance, the following comparison is always false:. Warn about suspicious operations on expressions of a boolean type.

For instance, bitwise negation of a boolean is very likely a bug in the program. For C, this warning also warns about incrementing or decrementing a boolean, which rarely makes sense. This warning also warn for conditional operators:. Warn about duplicated conditions in an if-else-if chain. For instance, warn for the following code:. Such calls may return indeterminate values or crash the program. The warning is included in -Wall.

Do not warn if type qualifiers on pointers are being discarded. This option can be used to suppress such a warning. Do not warn if type qualifiers on arrays which are pointer targets are being discarded. Do not warn when there is a conversion between pointers that have incompatible types.

This warning is for cases not covered by -Wno-pointer-sign , which warns for pointer argument passing or assignment with different signedness.

Do not warn about incompatible integer to pointer and pointer to integer conversions. This warning is about implicit conversions; for explicit conversions the warnings -Wno-int-to-pointer-cast and -Wno-pointer-to-int-cast may be used. Warn about accesses to elements of zero-length array members that might overlap other members of the same object.

Declaring interior zero-length arrays is discouraged because accesses to them are undefined. See See Zero Length. For example, the first two stores in function bad are diagnosed because the array elements overlap the subsequent members b and c.

The third store is diagnosed by -Warray-bounds because it is beyond the bounds of the enclosing object. Do not warn about compile-time integer division by zero. Floating-point division by zero is not warned about, as it can be a legitimate way of obtaining infinities and NaNs. Print warning messages for constructs found in system header files.

Warnings from system headers are normally suppressed, on the assumption that they usually do not indicate real problems and would only make the compiler output harder to read. Using this command-line option tells GCC to emit warnings from system headers as if they occurred in user code. However, note that using -Wall in conjunction with this option does not warn about unknown pragmas in system headers—for that, -Wunknown-pragmas must also be used.

Warn if a self-comparison always evaluates to true or false. This warning detects various mistakes such as:. This warning also warns about bitwise comparisons that always evaluate to true or false, for instance:. Warn about trampolines generated for pointers to nested functions. A trampoline is a small piece of data or code that is created at run time on the stack when the address of a nested function is taken, and is used to call the nested function indirectly. For some targets, it is made up of data only and thus requires no special treatment.

But, for most targets, it is made up of code and thus requires the stack to be made executable in order for the program to work properly. The idea behind this is that sometimes it is convenient for the programmer to consider floating-point values as approximations to infinitely precise real numbers.

In particular, instead of testing for equality, you should check to see whether the two values have ranges that overlap; and this is done with the relational operators, so equality comparisons are probably mistaken. Warn about certain constructs that behave differently in traditional and ISO C.

Warn if a prototype causes a type conversion that is different from what would happen to the same argument in the absence of a prototype. This includes conversions of fixed point to floating and vice versa, and conversions changing the width or signedness of a fixed-point argument except when the same as the default promotion.

Warn when a declaration is found after a statement in a block. It is not supported by ISO C See Mixed Labels and Declarations. If this warning is enabled, it includes also all instances of local shadowing. Warn when a local variable shadows another local variable or parameter whose type is compatible with that of the shadowing variable.

Because their types are incompatible, if a programmer accidentally uses one in place of the other, type checking is expected to catch that and emit an error or warning.

Warn whenever an object is defined whose size exceeds byte-size. These warnings can only be disabled by -Wno-larger-than. Warn if the size of a function frame exceeds byte-size. The computation done to determine the stack frame size is approximate and not conservative. The actual requirements may be somewhat greater than byte-size even if you do not get a warning. In addition, any space allocated via alloca , variable-length arrays, or related constructs is not included by the compiler when determining whether or not to issue a warning.

Warn when attempting to deallocate an object that was either not allocated on the heap, or by using a pointer that was not returned from a prior call to the corresponding allocation function. For example, because the call to stpcpy returns a pointer to the terminating nul character and not to the beginning of the object, the call to free below is diagnosed. Warn if the stack usage of a function might exceed byte-size.

The computation done to determine the stack usage is conservative. Any space allocated via alloca , variable-length arrays, or related constructs is included by the compiler when determining whether or not to issue a warning.

Warn if the loop cannot be optimized because the compiler cannot assume anything on the bounds of the loop indices. With -funsafe-loop-optimizations warn if the compiler makes such assumptions. This warning is also enabled by -Wpedantic.

Do not warn if a pointer is compared with a zero character constant. This usually means that the pointer was meant to be dereferenced. Warn if a comparison is always true or always false due to the limited range of the data type, but do not warn for constant expressions. This warning is also enabled by -Wextra.

Warn for calls to standard functions that compute the absolute value of an argument when a more appropriate standard function is available. For example, calling abs 3. The option also triggers warnings when the argument in a call to such a function has an unsigned type. This warning can be suppressed with an explicit type cast and it is also enabled by -Wextra.

Warn if any trigraphs are encountered that might change the meaning of the program. Trigraphs within comments are not warned about, except those that would form escaped newlines.

This option is implied by -Wall. If -Wall is not given, this option is still enabled unless trigraphs are enabled. Warn if an undefined identifier is evaluated in an if directive. Such identifiers are replaced with zero. Such usage is not portable. This warning is also enabled by -Wpedantic and -Wextra.

Warn about macros defined in the main file that are unused. A macro is used if it is expanded or tested for existence at least once. The preprocessor also warns if the macro has not been used at the time it is redefined or undefined. Built-in macros, macros defined on the command line, and macros defined in include files are not warned about. Note: If a macro is actually used, but only used in skipped conditional blocks, then the preprocessor reports it as unused.

Alternatively, you could provide a dummy use with something like:. Do not warn whenever an else or an endif are followed by text. This sometimes happens in older programs with code of the form. Warn when a function call is cast to a non-matching type. For example, warn if a call to a function returning an integer type is cast to a pointer type. Warn about features not present in ISO C90, but present in ISO C For instance, warn about use of variable length arrays, long long type, bool type, compound literals, designated initializers, and so on.

This option is independent of the standards mode. Warn about features not present in ISO C99, but present in ISO C Warn about features not present in ISO C11, but present in ISO C2X. This warning turns on -Wnarrowing and is enabled by -Wall.

Warn whenever a pointer is cast so as to remove a type qualifier from the target type. Also warn when making a cast that introduces a type qualifier in an unsafe way. Warn whenever a pointer is cast such that the required alignment of the target is increased. Warn when a function pointer is cast to an incompatible function pointer. In a cast involving function types with a variable argument list only the types of initial arguments that are provided are considered.

Any parameter of pointer-type matches any other pointer-type. Any benign differences in integral types are ignored, like int vs. long on ILP32 targets. Likewise type qualifiers are ignored. In a cast involving pointer to member types this warning warns whenever the type cast is changing the pointer to member type. This warning is enabled by -Wextra. These warnings help you find at compile time code that can try to write into a string constant, but only if you have been very careful about using const in declarations and prototypes.

Otherwise, it is just a nuisance. This is why we did not make -Wall request these warnings. Warn for variables that might be changed by longjmp or vfork. Warn for implicit conversions that may alter a value. Warnings about conversions between signed and unsigned integers can be disabled by using -Wno-sign-conversion. Warnings about conversion from arithmetic on a small type back to that type are only given with -Warith-conversion. Warn about constructions where there may be confusion to which if statement an else branch belongs.

Here is an example of such a case:. This is often not what the programmer expected, as illustrated in the above example by indentation the programmer chose. When there is the potential for this confusion, GCC issues a warning when this flag is specified. To eliminate the warning, add explicit braces around the innermost if statement so there is no way the else can belong to the enclosing if.

The resulting code looks like this:. This includes local variables declared in nested blocks, compound literals and other unnamed temporary objects. In addition, warn about storing the address of such objects in escaped pointers. The warning is enabled at all optimization levels but may yield different results with optimization than without. At level 2, in addition to unconditional uses the warning also diagnoses conditional uses of dangling pointers.

For example, because the array a in the following function is out of scope when the pointer s that was set to point is used, the warning triggers at this level. Warn if an empty body occurs in an if , else or do while statement. Warn about a comparison between values of different enumerated types. In C this warning is enabled by -Wall.

Warn when a value of enumerated type is implicitly converted to a different enumerated type. This warning is enabled by -Wextra in C. Warn about mismatches between an enumerated type and an integer type in declarations. In C, an enumerated type is compatible with char , a signed integer type, or an unsigned integer type. However, since the choice of the underlying type of an enumerated type is implementation-defined, such mismatches may cause portability issues. Warn if a goto statement or a switch statement jumps forward across the initialization of a variable, or jumps backward to a label after the variable has been initialized.

This only warns about variables that are initialized when they are declared. It can be disabled with the -Wno-jump-misses-init option. Warn when a comparison between signed and unsigned values could produce an incorrect result when the signed value is converted to unsigned.

In C, it is also enabled by -Wextra. Warn for implicit conversions that may change the sign of an integer value, like assigning a signed integer expression to an unsigned integer variable. An explicit cast silences the warning. In C, this option is enabled also by -Wconversion. Warn for implicit conversions that reduce the precision of a real value. This includes conversions from real to integer, and from higher precision real to lower precision real values.

This option is also enabled by -Wconversion. Warn about divisions of two sizeof operators when the first one is applied to an array and the divisor does not equal the size of the array element. In such a case, the computation will not yield the number of elements in the array, which is likely what the user intended. This warning warns e.

Warn for suspicious length parameters to certain string and memory built-in functions if the argument uses sizeof. For example, in the following function the call to strncat specifies the size of the source string as the bound. That is almost certainly a mistake and so the call is diagnosed. Do not warn when the sizeof operator is applied to a parameter that is declared as an array in a function definition.

Warn for suspicious calls to the memset built-in function, if the first argument references an array, and the third argument is a number equal to the number of elements, but not equal to the size of the array in memory. This indicates that the user has omitted a multiplication by the element size. Warn for suspicious calls to the memset built-in function where the second argument is not zero and the third argument is zero.

For example, the call memset buf, sizeof buf, 0 is diagnosed because memset buf, 0, sizeof buf was meant instead. The diagnostic is only emitted if the third argument is a literal zero. Otherwise, if it is an expression that is folded to zero, or a cast of zero to some type, it is far less likely that the arguments have been mistakenly transposed and no warning is emitted. Warn about suspicious uses of address expressions. These include comparing the address of a function or a declared object to the null pointer constant such as in.

Such uses typically indicate a programmer error: the address of most functions and objects necessarily evaluates to true the exception are weak symbols , so their use in a conditional might indicate missing parentheses in a function call or a missing dereference in an array expression. Comparisons against string literals result in unspecified behavior and are not portable, and suggest the intent was to call strcmp.

The warning is suppressed if the suspicious expression is the result of macro expansion. Do not warn when the address of packed member of struct or union is taken, which usually results in an unaligned pointer value. This is enabled by default. Warn about suspicious uses of logical operators in expressions. This includes using logical operators in contexts where a bit-wise operator is likely to be expected.

Also warns when the operands of a logical operator are the same:. Warn about logical not used on the left hand side operand of a comparison.

This option does not warn if the right operand is considered to be a boolean expression. Its purpose is to detect suspicious code like the following:. Warn if any functions that return structures or unions are defined or called. In languages where you can return an array, this also elicits a warning.

Warn if in a loop with constant number of iterations the compiler detects undefined behavior in some statement during one or more of the iterations. This does not stop errors for incorrect use of supported attributes.

Warn if a built-in function is declared with an incompatible signature or as a non-function, or when a built-in function declared with a type that does not include a prototype is called with arguments whose promoted types do not match those expected by the function. When -Wextra is specified, also warn when a built-in function that takes arguments is declared without a prototype. The -Wbuiltin-declaration-mismatch warning is enabled by default.

To avoid the warning include the appropriate header to bring the prototypes of built-in functions into scope. With -Wextra , the declaration of the function is diagnosed as well. Do not warn if certain built-in macros are redefined. Warn if a function is declared or defined without specifying the argument types.

An old-style function definition is permitted without a warning if preceded by a declaration that specifies the argument types. Warn for obsolescent usages, according to the C Standard, in a declaration. For example, warn if storage-class specifiers like static are not the first things in a declaration.

Warn if an old-style function definition is used. A warning is given even if there is a previous prototype. Warn if a global function is defined without a previous prototype declaration. This warning is issued even if the definition itself provides a prototype. Use this option to detect global functions that do not have a matching prototype declaration in a header file.

Warn if a global function is defined without a previous declaration. Do so even if the definition itself provides a prototype. Use this option to detect global functions that are not declared in header files. In C, no warnings are issued for functions with previous non-prototype declarations; use -Wmissing-prototypes to detect missing prototypes. For example, the following code causes such a warning, because x.

h is implicitly zero:. This option does not warn about designated initializers, so the following modification does not trigger a warning:. This warning is included in -Wextra. To get other -Wextra warnings without this one, use -Wextra -Wno-missing-field-initializers.

Presumably the user meant to write. The member access tokens. In rare cases it is possible to get false positives. To silence this, wrap the expression in parentheses. For example, the following is treated as a template, even where m and N are integers:. However, sometimes when characters outside the basic ASCII character set are used, you can have two different character sequences that look the same. To avoid confusion, the ISO standard sets out some normalization rules which when applied ensure that two sequences that look the same are turned into the same sequence.

GCC can warn you if you are using identifiers that have not been normalized; this option controls that warning. There are four levels of warning supported by GCC. NFC is the recommended form for most uses. It is equivalent to -Wnormalized. It is hoped that future versions of the standards involved will correct this, which is why this option is not the default. Some characters in ISO have distinct meanings but look identical in some fonts or display methodologies, especially once formatting has been applied.

This warning is comparable to warning about every identifier that contains the letter O because it might be confused with the digit 0, and so is not the default, but may be useful as a local coding convention if the programming environment cannot be fixed to display these characters distinctly.

Do not warn about usage of functions see Function Attributes declared with warning attribute. By default, this warning is enabled. Do not warn about usage of deprecated features. See Deprecated Features. Do not warn about uses of functions see Function Attributes , variables see Variable Attributes , and types see Type Attributes marked as deprecated by using the deprecated attribute.

Warn if the vectorizer cost model overrides the OpenMP simd directive set by user. Warn if an initialized field without side effects is overridden when using designated initializers see Designated Initializers. To get other -Wextra warnings without this one, use -Wextra -Wno-override-init. Do not warn if an initialized field with side effects is overridden when using designated initializers see Designated Initializers.

Warn if a structure is given the packed attribute, but the packed attribute has no effect on the layout or size of the structure. Such structures may be mis-aligned for little benefit. For instance, in this code, the variable f. x in struct bar is misaligned even though struct bar does not itself have the packed attribute:. The 4. This was fixed in GCC 4.

GCC informs you when the offset of such a field has changed in GCC 4. For example there is no longer a 4-bit padding between field a and b in this structure:. Use -Wno-packed-bitfield-compat to disable this warning. Warn if a structure field with explicitly specified alignment in a packed struct or union is misaligned.

For example, a warning will be issued on struct S , like, warning: alignment 1 of 'struct S' is less than 8 , in this code:. Warn if padding is included in a structure, either to align an element of the structure or to align the whole structure. Sometimes when this happens it is possible to rearrange the fields of the structure to reduce the padding and so make the structure smaller. Warn if anything is declared more than once in the same scope, even in cases where multiple declaration is valid and changes nothing.

For example, the call to the strcpy function below attempts to truncate the string by replacing its initial characters with the last four. However, because the call writes the terminating NUL into a[4] , the copies overlap and the call is diagnosed. The -Wrestrict option detects some instances of simple overlap even without optimization but works best at -O2 and above.

Warn if a function that is declared as inline cannot be inlined. Even with this option, the compiler does not warn about failures to inline functions declared in system headers. The compiler uses a variety of heuristics to determine whether or not to inline a function. For example, the compiler takes into account the size of the function being inlined and the amount of inlining that has already been done in the current function.

Therefore, seemingly insignificant changes in the source program can cause the warnings produced by -Winline to appear or disappear. Also warn about questionable values for that option. This variable is intended to be used for controlling class layout, to avoid false sharing in concurrent code:. By default, --param destructive-interference-size and --param constructive-interference-size are set based on the current -mtune option, typically to the L1 cache line size for the particular target CPU, sometimes to a range if tuning for a generic target.

So all translation units that depend on ABI compatibility for the use of these variables must be compiled with the same -mtune or -mcpu. If ABI stability is important, such as if the use is in a header for a library, you should probably not use the hardware interference size variables at all.

Alternatively, you can force a particular value with --param. If you are confident that your use of the variable does not affect ABI outside a single build of your project, you can turn off the warning with -Wno-interference-size. Warn for suspicious use of integer values where boolean values are expected, such as conditional expressions? Likewise for all kinds of multiplications regardless of the data type.

Suppress warnings from casts to pointer type of an integer of a different size. Wint-to-pointer-cast is enabled by default. Warn if a precompiled header see Precompiled Headers is found in the search path but cannot be used.

Warn if an invalid UTF-8 character is found. Wunicode is enabled by default. Warn if long long type is used. To inhibit the warning messages, use -Wno-long-long.

Warn if variadic macros are used in ISO C90 mode, or if the GNU alternate syntax is used in ISO C99 mode. This is enabled by either -Wpedantic or -Wtraditional. In particular, an object of one type is assumed never to reside at the same address as an object of a different type, unless the types are almost the same. A character type may alias any other type. Even with -fstrict-aliasing , type-punning is allowed, provided the memory is accessed through the union type.

So, the code above works as expected. See Structures unions enumerations and bit-fields implementation. However, this code might not:. Similarly, access by taking the address, casting the resulting pointer and dereferencing the result has undefined behavior, even if the cast uses a union type, e.

The -fstrict-aliasing option is enabled at levels -O2 , -O3 , -Os. Controls whether rules of -fstrict-aliasing are applied across function boundaries. Note that if multiple functions gets inlined into a single function the memory accesses are no longer considered to be crossing a function boundary.

The -fipa-strict-aliasing option is enabled by default and is effective only in combination with -fstrict-aliasing. Align the start of functions to the next power-of-two greater than or equal to n , skipping up to m -1 bytes. This ensures that at least the first m bytes of the function can be fetched by the CPU without crossing an n -byte alignment boundary. If m2 is not specified, it defaults to n2.

Some assemblers only support this flag when n is a power of two; in that case, it is rounded up. If n is not specified or is zero, use a machine-dependent default. The maximum allowed n option value is If this option is enabled, the compiler tries to avoid unnecessarily overaligning functions. It attempts to instruct the assembler to align by the amount specified by -falign-functions , but not to skip more bytes than the size of the function.

Parameters of this option are analogous to the -falign-functions option. If -falign-loops or -falign-jumps are applicable and are greater than this value, then their values are used instead. Align loops to a power-of-two boundary.

If the loops are executed many times, this makes up for any execution of the dummy padding instructions. Align branch targets to a power-of-two boundary, for branch targets where the targets can only be reached by jumping.

In this case, no dummy operations need be executed. Allow the compiler to perform optimizations that may introduce new data races on stores, without proving that the variable cannot be concurrently accessed by other threads.

Does not affect optimization of local data. It is safe to use this option if it is known that global data will not be accessed by multiple threads. Examples of optimizations enabled by -fallow-store-data-races include hoisting or if-conversions that may cause a value that was already in memory to be re-written with that same value. Such re-writing is safe in a single threaded context but may be unsafe in a multi-threaded context.

Note that on some processors, if-conversions may be required in order to enable vectorization. This option is left for compatibility reasons. Do not reorder top-level functions, variables, and asm statements. Output them in the same order that they appear in the input file. When this option is used, unreferenced static variables are not removed. This option is intended to support existing code that relies on a particular ordering.

For new code, it is better to use attributes when possible. Additionally -fno-toplevel-reorder implies -fno-section-anchors. This also affects any such calls implicitly generated by the compiler. Constructs webs as commonly used for register allocation purposes and assign each web individual pseudo register.

This allows the register allocation pass to operate on pseudos directly, but also strengthens several other optimization passes, such as CSE, loop optimizer and trivial dead code remover. Assume that the current compilation unit represents the whole program being compiled. This option should not be used in combination with -flto. Instead relying on a linker plugin should provide safer and more precise information. This option runs the standard link-time optimizer.

When the object files are linked together, all the function bodies are read from these ELF sections and instantiated as if they had been part of the same translation unit.

To use the link-time optimizer, -flto and optimization options should be specified at compile time and during the final link.

It is recommended that you compile all the files participating in the same link with the same options and also specify those options at link time. For example:. The first two invocations to GCC save a bytecode representation of GIMPLE into special ELF sections inside foo.

o and bar. The final invocation reads the GIMPLE bytecode from foo. o , merges the two files into a single internal image, and compiles the result as usual. Since both foo. o are merged into a single image, this causes all the interprocedural analyses and optimizations in GCC to work across the two files as if they were a single one. This means, for example, that the inliner is able to inline functions in bar. o into functions in foo. o and vice-versa.

The above generates bytecode for foo. c and bar. c , merges them together into a single GIMPLE representation and optimizes them as usual to produce myprog. The important thing to keep in mind is that to enable link-time optimizations you need to use the GCC driver to perform the link step.

GCC automatically performs link-time optimization if any of the objects involved were compiled with the -flto command-line option.

You can always override the automatic decision to do link-time optimization by passing -fno-lto to the link command. To make whole program optimization effective, it is necessary to make certain whole program assumptions. The compiler needs to know what functions and variables can be accessed by libraries and runtime outside of the link-time optimized unit.

When supported by the linker, the linker plugin see -fuse-linker-plugin passes information to the compiler about used and externally visible symbols. When the linker plugin is not available, -fwhole-program should be used to allow the compiler to make these assumptions, which leads to more aggressive optimization decisions. When a file is compiled with -flto without -fuse-linker-plugin , the generated object file is larger than a regular object file because it contains GIMPLE bytecodes and the usual final code see -ffat-lto-objects.

This means that object files with LTO information can be linked as normal object files; if -fno-lto is passed to the linker, no interprocedural optimizations are applied.

Note that when -fno-fat-lto-objects is enabled the compile stage is faster but you cannot perform a regular, non-LTO link on them. When producing the final binary, GCC only applies link-time optimizations to those files that contain bytecode.

Therefore, you can mix and match object files and libraries with GIMPLE bytecodes and final object code. GCC automatically selects which files to optimize in LTO mode and which files to link without further processing. Generally, options specified at link time override those specified at compile time, although in some cases GCC attempts to infer link-time options from the settings used to compile the input files.

If you do not specify an optimization level option -O at link time, then GCC uses the highest optimization level used when compiling the object files. Note that it is generally ineffective to specify an optimization level option only at link time and not at compile time, for two reasons. First, compiling without optimization suppresses compiler passes that gather information needed for effective optimization at link time.

Second, some early optimization passes can be performed only at compile time and not at link time. There are some code generation flags preserved by GCC when generating bytecodes, as they need to be used during the final link.

Currently, the following options and their settings are taken from the first object file that explicitly specifies them: -fcommon , -fexceptions , -fnon-call-exceptions , -fgnu-tm and all the -m target flags.

The following options -fPIC , -fpic , -fpie and -fPIE are combined based on the following scheme:. Certain ABI-changing flags are required to match in all compilation units, and trying to override this at link time with a conflicting value is ignored. This includes options such as -freg-struct-return and -fpcc-struct-return. Other options such as -ffp-contract , -fno-strict-overflow , -fwrapv , -fno-trapv or -fno-strict-aliasing are passed through to the link stage and merged conservatively for conflicting translation units.

You can override them at link time. Diagnostic options such as -Wstringop-overflow are passed through to the link stage and their setting matches that of the compile-step at function granularity. Note that this matters only for diagnostics emitted during optimization. Note that code transforms such as inlining can lead to warnings being enabled or disabled for regions if code not consistent with the setting at compile time. When you need to pass options to the assembler via -Wa or -Xassembler make sure to either compile such translation units with -fno-lto or consistently use the same assembler options on all translation units.

You can alternatively also specify assembler options at LTO link time. To enable debug info generation you need to supply -g at compile time. If any of the input files at link time were built with debug info generation enabled the link will enable debug info generation as well.

Any elaborate debug info settings like the dwarf level -gdwarf-5 need to be explicitly repeated at the linker command line and mixing different settings in different translation units is discouraged. If LTO encounters objects with C linkage declared with incompatible types in separate translation units to be linked together undefined behavior according to ISO C99 6. The behavior is still undefined at run time.

Similar diagnostics may be raised for other languages. Another feature of LTO is that it is possible to apply interprocedural optimizations on files written in different languages:. In general, when mixing languages in LTO mode, you should use the same link command options as when mixing languages in a regular non-LTO compilation.

If object files containing GIMPLE bytecode are stored in a library archive, say libfoo. a , it is possible to extract and use them in an LTO link if you are using a linker with plugin support. To create static libraries suitable for LTO, use gcc-ar and gcc-ranlib instead of ar and ranlib ; to show the symbols of object files with GIMPLE bytecode, use gcc-nm.

Those commands require that ar , ranlib and nm have been compiled with plugin support. At link time, use the flag -fuse-linker-plugin to ensure that the library participates in the LTO optimization process:.

With the linker plugin enabled, the linker extracts the needed GIMPLE files from libfoo. a and passes them on to the running GCC to make them part of the aggregated GIMPLE image to be optimized.

a are extracted and linked as usual, but they do not participate in the LTO optimization process. In order to make a static library suitable for both LTO optimization and usual linkage, compile its object files with -flto -ffat-lto-objects. Link-time optimizations do not require the presence of the whole program to operate. If the program does not require any symbols to be exported, it is possible to combine -flto and -fwhole-program to allow the interprocedural optimizers to use more aggressive assumptions which may lead to improved optimization opportunities.

Use of -fwhole-program is not needed when linker plugin is active see -fuse-linker-plugin. The current implementation of LTO makes no attempt to generate bytecode that is portable between different types of hosts. The bytecode files are versioned and there is a strict version check, so bytecode files generated in one version of GCC do not work with an older or newer version of GCC. Link-time optimization does not work well with generation of debugging information on systems other than those using a combination of ELF and DWARF.

If you specify the optional n , the optimization and code generation done at link time is executed in parallel using n parallel jobs by utilizing an installed make program. The environment variable MAKE may be used to override the program used.

This is useful when the Makefile calling GCC is already executing in parallel. This option likely only works if MAKE is GNU make. Specify the partitioning algorithm used by the link-time optimizer. This option specifies the level of compression used for intermediate language written to LTO object files, and is only meaningful in conjunction with LTO mode -flto. GCC currently supports two LTO compression algorithms.

For zstd, valid values are 0 no compression to 19 maximum compression , while zlib supports values from 0 to 9. Values outside this range are clamped to either minimum or maximum of the supported values.

If the option is not given, a default balanced compression setting is used. Enables the use of a linker plugin during link-time optimization. This option relies on plugin support in the linker, which is available in gold or in GNU ld 2.

This option enables the extraction of object files with GIMPLE bytecode out of library archives. This improves the quality of optimization by exposing more code to the link-time optimizer. This information specifies what symbols can be accessed externally by non-LTO object or during dynamic linking. Resulting code quality improvements on binaries and shared libraries that use hidden visibility are similar to -fwhole-program.

See -flto for a description of the effect of this flag and how to use it. This option is enabled by default when LTO support in GCC is enabled and GCC was configured for use with a linker supporting plugins GNU ld 2. Fat LTO objects are object files that contain both the intermediate language and the object code. This makes them usable for both LTO linking and normal linking.

This option is effective only when compiling with -flto and is ignored at link time. It requires a linker with linker plugin support for basic functionality. Additionally, nm , ar and ranlib need to support linker plugins to allow a full-featured build environment capable of building static libraries etc. GCC provides the gcc-ar , gcc-nm , gcc-ranlib wrappers to pass the right options to these tools.

With non fat LTO makefiles need to be modified to use them. Note that modern binutils provide plugin auto-load mechanism. After register allocation and post-register allocation instruction splitting, identify arithmetic instructions that compute processor flags similar to a comparison operation based on that arithmetic. If possible, eliminate the explicit comparison operation. This pass only applies to certain targets that cannot explicitly represent the comparison operation before register allocation is complete.

After register allocation and post-register allocation instruction splitting, perform a copy-propagation pass to try to reduce scheduling dependencies and occasionally eliminate the copy.

Profiles collected using an instrumented binary for multi-threaded programs may be inconsistent due to missed counter updates. When this option is specified, GCC uses heuristics to correct or smooth out such inconsistencies. By default, GCC emits an error message when an inconsistent profile is detected. With -fprofile-use all portions of programs not executed during train run are optimized agressively for size rather than speed.

In some cases it is not practical to train all possible hot paths in the program. For example, program may contain functions specific for a given hardware and trianing may not cover all hardware configurations program is run on. With -fprofile-partial-training profile feedback will be ignored for all functions not executed during the train run leading them to be optimized as if they were compiled without profile feedback.

This leads to better performance when train run is not representative but also leads to significantly bigger code. Enable profile feedback-directed optimizations, and the following optimizations, many of which are generally profitable only with profile feedback available:. Before you can use this option, you must first generate profiling information. See Instrumentation Options , for information about the -fprofile-generate option. By default, GCC emits an error message if the feedback profiles do not match the source code.

Note this may result in poorly optimized code. Additionally, by default, GCC also emits a warning message if the feedback profiles do not exist see -Wmissing-profile. If path is specified, GCC looks at the path to find the profile feedback data files.

See -fprofile-dir. Enable sampling-based feedback-directed optimizations, and the following optimizations, many of which are generally profitable only with profile feedback available:. path is the name of a file containing AutoFDO profile information. If omitted, it defaults to fbdata. afdo in the current directory. You must also supply the unstripped binary for your program to this tool. The following options control compiler behavior regarding floating-point arithmetic.

These options trade off between speed and correctness. All must be specifically enabled. Do not store floating-point variables in registers, and inhibit other options that might change whether a floating-point value is taken from a register or memory. This option prevents undesirable excess precision on machines such as the where the floating registers of the keep more precision than a double is supposed to have.

Similarly for the x86 architecture. For most programs, the excess precision does only good, but a few programs rely on the precise definition of IEEE floating point. Use -ffloat-store for such programs, after modifying them to store all pertinent intermediate computations into variables.

This option allows further control over excess precision on machines where floating-point operations occur in a format with more precision or range than the IEEE standard and interchange floating-point types.

It may, however, yield faster code for programs that do not require the guarantees of these specifications. Do not set errno after calling math functions that are executed with a single instruction, e. A program that relies on IEEE exceptions for math error handling may want to use this flag for speed while maintaining IEEE arithmetic compatibility. On Darwin systems, the math library never sets errno.

There is therefore no reason for the compiler to consider the possibility that it might, and -fno-math-errno is the default.

Allow optimizations for floating-point arithmetic that a assume that arguments and results are valid and b may violate IEEE or ANSI standards. When used at link time, it may include libraries or startup files that change the default FPU control word or other similar optimizations. Enables -fno-signed-zeros , -fno-trapping-math , -fassociative-math and -freciprocal-math. Allow re-association of operands in series of floating-point operations.

May also reorder floating-point comparisons and thus may not be used when ordered comparisons are required. This option requires that both -fno-signed-zeros and -fno-trapping-math be in effect.

For Fortran the option is automatically enabled when both -fno-signed-zeros and -fno-trapping-math are in effect. Allow the reciprocal of a value to be used instead of dividing by the value if this enables optimizations. Note that this loses precision and increases the number of flops operating on the value. Allow optimizations for floating-point arithmetic that ignore the signedness of zero.

Compile code assuming that floating-point operations cannot generate user-visible traps. These traps include division by zero, overflow, underflow, inexact result and invalid operation. This option requires that -fno-signaling-nans be in effect. Disable transformations and optimizations that assume default floating-point rounding behavior. This is round-to-zero for all floating point to integer conversions, and round-to-nearest for all other arithmetic truncations.

This option should be specified for programs that change the FP rounding mode dynamically, or that may be executed with a non-default rounding mode. This option disables constant folding of floating-point expressions at compile time which may be affected by rounding mode and arithmetic transformations that are unsafe in the presence of sign-dependent rounding modes.

This option is experimental and does not currently guarantee to disable all GCC optimizations that are affected by rounding mode. Compile code assuming that IEEE signaling NaNs may generate user-visible traps during floating-point operations. Setting this option disables optimizations that may change the number of exceptions visible with signaling NaNs.

This option implies -ftrapping-math. This option is experimental and does not currently guarantee to disable all GCC optimizations that affect signaling NaN behavior. The default is -ffp-int-builtin-inexact , allowing the exception to be raised, unless C2X or a later C standard is selected.

This option does nothing unless -ftrapping-math is in effect. Treat floating-point constants as single precision instead of implicitly converting them to double-precision constants.

When enabled, this option states that a range reduction step is not needed when performing complex division. The default is -fno-cx-limited-range , but is enabled by -ffast-math. Nevertheless, the option applies to all languages. Complex multiplication and division follow Fortran rules. The following options control optimizations that may improve performance, but are not enabled by any -O options. This section includes experimental options that may produce broken code. After running a program compiled with -fprofile-arcs see Instrumentation Options , you can compile it a second time using -fbranch-probabilities , to improve optimizations based on the number of times each branch was taken.

When a program compiled with -fprofile-arcs exits, it saves arc execution counts to a file called sourcename. gcda for each source file. The information in this data file is very dependent on the structure of the generated code, so you must use the same source code and the same optimization options for both compilations.

See details about the file naming in -fprofile-arcs. These can be used to improve optimization. Currently, they are only used in one place: in reorg. If combined with -fprofile-arcs , it adds code so that some data about values of expressions in the program is gathered.

With -fbranch-probabilities , it reads back the data gathered from profiling values of expressions for usage in optimizations. Enabled by -fprofile-generate , -fprofile-use , and -fauto-profile. Function reordering based on profile instrumentation collects first time of execution of a function and orders these functions in ascending order. If combined with -fprofile-arcs , this option instructs the compiler to add code to gather information about values of expressions.

With -fbranch-probabilities , it reads back the data gathered and actually performs the optimizations based on them. Currently the optimizations include specialization of division operations using the knowledge about the value of the denominator. Attempt to avoid false dependencies in scheduled code by making use of registers left over after register allocation. This optimization most benefits processors with lots of registers. Performs a target dependent pass over the instruction stream to schedule instructions of same type together because target machine can execute them more efficiently if they are adjacent to each other in the instruction flow.

Perform tail duplication to enlarge superblock size. This transformation simplifies the control flow of the function allowing other optimizations to do a better job.

Unroll loops whose number of iterations can be determined at compile time or upon entry to the loop. It also turns on complete loop peeling i. complete removal of loops with a small constant number of iterations. This option makes code larger, and may or may not make it run faster. Unroll all loops, even if their number of iterations is uncertain when the loop is entered.

This usually makes programs run more slowly. Peels loops for which there is enough information that they do not roll much from profile feedback or static analysis. complete removal of loops with small constant number of iterations. Enables the loop invariant motion pass in the RTL loop optimizer. Enabled at level -O1 and higher, except for -Og.

Enables the loop store motion pass in the GIMPLE loop optimizer. This moves invariant stores to after the end of the loop in exchange for carrying the stored value in a register across the iteration. Note for this option to have an effect -ftree-loop-im has to be enabled as well. Move branches with loop invariant conditions out of the loop, with duplicates of the loop on both branches modified according to result of the condition.

If a loop iterates over an array with a variable stride, create another version of the loop that assumes the stride is always one. This is particularly useful for assumed-shape arrays in Fortran where for example it allows better vectorization assuming contiguous accesses. Place each function or data item into its own section in the output file if the target supports arbitrary sections. Use these options on systems where the linker can perform optimizations to improve locality of reference in the instruction space.

Most systems using the ELF object format have linkers with such optimizations. On AIX, the linker rearranges sections CSECTs based on the call graph. The performance impact varies. Together with a linker garbage collection linker --gc-sections option these options may lead to smaller statically-linked executables after stripping.

Only use these options when there are significant benefits from doing so. When you specify these options, the assembler and linker create larger object and executable files and are also slower. These options affect code generation. They prevent optimizations by the compiler and assembler using relative locations inside a translation unit since the locations are unknown until link time. An example of such an optimization is relaxing calls to short call instructions.

This transformation can help to reduce the number of GOT entries and GOT accesses on some targets. usually calculates the addresses of all three variables, but if you compile it with -fsection-anchors , it accesses the variables from a common anchor point instead.

Zero call-used registers at function return to increase program security by either mitigating Return-Oriented Programming ROP attacks or preventing information leakage through registers. In some places, GCC uses various constants to control the amount of optimization that is done. For example, GCC does not inline functions that contain more than a certain number of instructions.

You can control some of these constants on the command line using the --param option. The names of specific parameters, and the meaning of the values, are tied to the internals of the compiler, and are subject to change without notice in future releases. In each case, the value is an integer.

The following choices of name are recognized for all targets:. When branch is predicted to be taken with probability lower than this threshold in percent , then it is considered well predictable. RTL if-conversion tries to remove conditional branches around a block and replace them with conditionally executed instructions.

This parameter gives the maximum number of instructions in a block which should be considered for if-conversion. The compiler will also use other heuristics to decide whether if-conversion is likely to be profitable.

RTL if-conversion will try to remove conditional branches around a block and replace them with conditionally executed instructions. These parameters give the maximum permissible cost for the sequence that would be generated by if-conversion depending on whether the branch is statically determined to be predictable or not. The maximum number of incoming edges to consider for cross-jumping.

Increasing values mean more aggressive optimization, making the compilation time increase with probably small improvement in executable size. The minimum number of instructions that must be matched at the end of two blocks before cross-jumping is performed on them. This value is ignored in the case where all instructions in the block being cross-jumped from are matched. The maximum code size expansion factor when copying basic blocks instead of jumping.

The expansion is relative to a jump instruction. The maximum number of instructions to duplicate to a block that jumps to a computed goto. Only computed jumps at the end of a basic blocks with no more than max-goto-duplication-insns are unfactored. The maximum number of instructions to consider when looking for an instruction to fill a delay slot. If more than this arbitrary number of instructions are searched, the time savings from filling the delay slot are minimal, so stop searching.

Increasing values mean more aggressive optimization, making the compilation time increase with probably small improvement in execution time. When trying to fill delay slots, the maximum number of instructions to consider when searching for a block with valid live register information.

Increasing this arbitrarily chosen value means more aggressive optimization, increasing the compilation time. This parameter should be removed when the delay slot code is rewritten to maintain the control-flow graph.

The approximate maximum amount of memory in kB that can be allocated in order to perform the global common subexpression elimination optimization. If more memory than specified is required, the optimization is not done.

If the ratio of expression insertions to deletions is larger than this value for any expression, then RTL PRE inserts or removes the expression and thus leaves partially redundant computations in the instruction stream.

The maximum number of pending dependencies scheduling allows before flushing the current state and starting over. Large functions with few branches or calls can create excessively large lists which needlessly consume memory and resources. The maximum number of backtrack attempts the scheduler should make when modulo scheduling a loop.

Larger values can exponentially increase compilation time. Maximal loop depth of a call considered by inline heuristics that tries to inline all functions called once.

Several parameters control the tree inliner used in GCC. When you use -finline-functions included in -O3 , a lot of functions that would otherwise not be considered for inlining by the compiler are investigated.

To those functions, a different more restrictive limit compared to functions declared inline can be applied --param max-inline-insns-auto. This is bound applied to calls which are considered relevant with -finline-small-functions. This is bound applied to calls which are optimized for size. Small growth may be desirable to anticipate optimization oppurtunities exposed by inlining.

Number of instructions accounted by inliner for function overhead such as function prologue and epilogue. Extra time accounted by inliner for function overhead such as time needed to execute function prologue and epilogue. The scale in percents applied to inline-insns-single , inline-insns-single-O2 , inline-insns-auto when inline heuristics hints that inlining is very profitable will enable later optimizations.

Same as --param uninlined-function-insns and --param uninlined-function-time but applied to function thunks. The limit specifying really large functions.

For functions larger than this limit after inlining, inlining is constrained by --param large-function-growth. This parameter is useful primarily to avoid extreme compilation time caused by non-linear algorithms used by the back end. Specifies maximal growth of large function caused by inlining in percents. For example, parameter value limits large function growth to 2.

The limit specifying large translation unit. Growth caused by inlining of units larger than this limit is limited by --param inline-unit-growth. For small units this might be too tight. For example, consider a unit consisting of function A that is inline and B that just calls A three times. For very large units consisting of small inlineable functions, however, the overall unit growth limit is needed to avoid exponential explosion of code size.

Thus for smaller units, the size is increased to --param large-unit-insns before applying --param inline-unit-growth. Specifies maximal overall growth of the compilation unit caused by inlining. For example, parameter value 20 limits unit growth to 1. Cold functions either marked cold via an attribute or by profile feedback are not accounted into the unit size.

Specifies maximal overall growth of the compilation unit caused by interprocedural constant propagation. For example, parameter value 10 limits unit growth to 1. The limit specifying large stack frames. While inlining the algorithm is trying to not grow past this limit too much. Specifies maximal growth of large stack frames caused by inlining in percents.

For example, parameter value limits large stack frame growth to 11 times the original size. Specifies the maximum number of instructions an out-of-line copy of a self-recursive inline function can grow into by performing recursive inlining. For functions not declared inline, recursive inlining happens only when -finline-functions included in -O3 is enabled; --param max-inline-insns-recursive-auto applies instead.

For functions not declared inline, recursive inlining happens only when -finline-functions included in -O3 is enabled; --param max-inline-recursive-depth-auto applies instead. Recursive inlining is profitable only for function having deep recursion in average and can hurt for function having little recursion depth by increasing the prologue size or complexity of function body to other optimizers.

When profile feedback is available see -fprofile-generate the actual recursion depth can be guessed from the probability that function recurses via a given call expression.

This parameter limits inlining only to call expressions whose probability exceeds the given threshold in percents. Specify growth that the early inliner can make.

In effect it increases the amount of inlining for code having a large abstraction penalty. Limit of iterations of the early inliner. This basically bounds the number of nested indirect calls the early inliner can resolve. Deeper chains are still handled by late inlining.

This parameter ought to be bigger than --param modref-max-bases and --param modref-max-refs. Specifies the maximum depth of DFS walk used by modref escape analysis. Setting to 0 disables the analysis completely. A parameter to control whether to use function internal id in profile database lookup. If the value is 0, the compiler uses an id that is based on function assembler name and filename, which makes old profile data more tolerant to source changes such as function reordering etc.

The minimum number of iterations under which loops are not vectorized when -ftree-vectorize is used. The number of iterations after vectorization needs to be greater than the value specified by this option to allow vectorization. Scaling factor in calculation of maximum distance an expression can be moved by GCSE optimizations. This is currently supported only in the code hoisting pass. The bigger the ratio, the more aggressive code hoisting is with simple expressions, i.

Specifying 0 disables hoisting of simple expressions. Cost, roughly measured as the cost of a single typical machine instruction, at which GCSE optimizations do not constrain the distance an expression can travel.

The lesser the cost, the more aggressive code hoisting is. Specifying 0 allows all expressions to travel unrestricted distances.

The depth of search in the dominator tree for expressions to hoist. This is used to avoid quadratic behavior in hoisting algorithm. The value of 0 does not limit on the search, but may slow down compilation of huge functions. The maximum amount of similar bbs to compare a bb with.

This is used to avoid quadratic behavior in tree tail merging. The maximum amount of iterations of the pass over the function. This is used to limit compilation time in tree tail merging. The maximum number of store chains to track at the same time in the attempt to merge them into wider stores in the store merging pass. The maximum number of stores to track at the same time in the attemt to to merge them into wider stores in the store merging pass. The maximum number of instructions that a loop may have to be unrolled.

If a loop is unrolled, this parameter also determines how many times the loop code is unrolled. The maximum number of instructions biased by probabilities of their execution that a loop may have to be unrolled. The maximum number of instructions that a loop may have to be peeled. If a loop is peeled, this parameter also determines how many times the loop code is peeled. When FDO profile information is available, min-loop-cond-split-prob specifies minimum threshold for probability of semi-invariant condition statement to trigger loop split.

Bound on number of candidates for induction variables, below which all candidates are considered for each use in induction variable optimizations. If there are more candidates than this, only the most relevant ones are considered to avoid quadratic time complexity. If the number of candidates in the set is smaller than this value, always try to remove unnecessary ivs from the set when adding a new one.

Maximum size in bytes of objects tracked bytewise by dead store elimination. Larger values may result in larger compilation times. Maximum number of queries into the alias oracle per store.

Larger values result in larger compilation times and may result in more removed dead stores. Bound on size of expressions used in the scalar evolutions analyzer. Large expressions slow the analyzer. Bound on the complexity of the expressions in the scalar evolutions analyzer. Complex expressions slow the analyzer. Maximum number of arguments in a PHI supported by TREE if conversion unless the loop is marked with simd pragma.

The maximum number of possible vector layouts such as permutations to consider when optimizing to-be-vectorized code. The maximum number of run-time checks that can be performed when doing loop versioning for alignment in the vectorizer. The maximum number of run-time checks that can be performed when doing loop versioning for alias in the vectorizer.

The maximum number of loop peels to enhance access alignment for vectorizer. Value -1 means no limit. The maximum number of iterations of a loop the brute-force algorithm for analysis of the number of iterations of the loop tries to evaluate. Used in non-LTO mode.

The number of most executed permilles, ranging from 0 to , of the profiled execution of the entire program to which the execution count of a basic block must be part of in order to be considered hot. The default is , which means that a basic block is considered hot if its execution count contributes to the upper permilles, or Used in LTO mode. The maximum number of loop iterations we predict statically. This is useful in cases where a function contains a single loop with known bound and another loop with unknown bound.

The known number of iterations is predicted correctly, while the unknown number of iterations average to roughly This means that the loop without bounds appears artificially cold relative to the other one. Control the probability of the expression having the specified value. This parameter takes a percentage i. Select fraction of the maximal frequency of executions of a basic block in a function to align the basic block. This value is used to limit superblock formation once the given percentage of executed instructions is covered.

This limits unnecessary code size expansion. The tracer-dynamic-coverage-feedback parameter is used only when profile feedback is available. The real profiles as opposed to statically estimated ones are much less balanced allowing the threshold to be larger value. Stop tail duplication once code growth has reached given percentage.

This is a rather artificial limit, as most of the duplicates are eliminated later in cross jumping, so it may be set to much higher values than is the desired code growth. Stop reverse growth when the reverse probability of best edge is less than this threshold in percent. Similarly to tracer-dynamic-coverage two parameters are provided. tracer-min-branch-probability-feedback is used for compilation with profile feedback and tracer-min-branch-probability compilation without.

The value for compilation with profile feedback needs to be more conservative higher in order to make tracer effective. Specify the size of the operating system provided stack guard as 2 raised to num bytes. Higher values may reduce the number of explicit probes, but a value larger than the operating system provided guard will leave code vulnerable to stack clash style attacks. Stack clash protection involves probing stack space as it is allocated.

This param controls the maximum distance between probes into the stack as 2 raised to num bytes. GCC uses a garbage collector to manage its own memory allocation. Tuning this may improve compilation speed; it has no effect on code generation.

Setting this parameter and ggc-min-heapsize to zero causes a full collection to occur at every opportunity. This is extremely slow, but can be useful for debugging.

Again, tuning this may improve compilation speed, and has no effect on code generation. If GCC is not able to calculate RAM on a particular platform, the lower bound is used. Setting this parameter very large effectively disables garbage collection. Setting this parameter and ggc-min-expand to zero causes a full collection to occur at every opportunity.

The maximum number of instruction reload should look backward for equivalent register. Increasing values mean more aggressive optimization, making the compilation time increase with probably slightly better performance. The maximum number of memory locations cselib should take into account. The maximum number of instructions ready to be issued the scheduler should consider at any given time during the first scheduling pass.

Increasing values mean more thorough searches, making the compilation time increase with probably little benefit. The maximum number of blocks in a region to be considered for pipelining in the selective scheduler. The maximum number of insns in a region to be considered for pipelining in the selective scheduler. The minimum probability in percents of reaching a source block for interblock speculative scheduling. The maximum number of iterations through CFG to extend regions.

A value of 0 disables region extensions. The minimal probability of speculation success in percents , so that speculative insns are scheduled. The maximum size of the lookahead window of selective scheduling. It is a depth of search for available instructions. The maximum number of times that an instruction is scheduled during selective scheduling. This is the limit on the number of iterations through which the instruction may be pipelined.

The maximum number of best instructions in the ready list that are considered for renaming in the selective scheduler. The maximum size measured as number of RTLs that can be recorded in an expression in combiner for a pseudo register as last known value of that register.

This sets the maximum value of a shared integer constant. The minimum size of buffers i. arrays that receive stack smashing protection when -fstack-protector is used. Maximum number of statements allowed in a block that needs to be duplicated when threading jumps.

The maximum number of paths to consider when searching for jump threading opportunities. When arriving at a block, incoming edges are only considered if the number of paths to be searched so far multiplied by the number of incoming edges does not exhaust the specified maximum number of paths to consider.

Maximum number of fields in a structure treated in a field sensitive manner during pointer analysis. Estimate on average number of instructions that are executed before prefetch finishes. The distance prefetched ahead is proportional to this constant. Increasing this number may also lead to less streams being prefetched see simultaneous-prefetches. Whether the loop array prefetch pass should issue software prefetch hints for strides that are non-constant.

In some cases this may be beneficial, though the fact the stride is non-constant may make it hard to predict when there is clear benefit to issuing these hints. Set to 1 if the prefetch hints should be issued for non-constant strides. Set to 0 if prefetch hints should be issued only for strides that are known to be constant and below prefetch-minimum-stride.

Minimum constant stride, in bytes, to start using prefetch hints for. If the stride is less than this threshold, prefetch hints will not be issued. This setting is useful for processors that have hardware prefetchers, in which case there may be conflicts between the hardware prefetchers and the software prefetchers. If the hardware prefetchers have a maximum stride they can handle, it should be used here to improve the use of software prefetchers.

The destructive interference size is the minimum recommended offset between two independent concurrently-accessed objects; the constructive interference size is the maximum recommended size of contiguous memory accessed together. Typically both will be the size of an L1 cache line for the target, in bytes. For a generic target covering a range of L1 cache line sizes, typically the constructive interference size will be the small end of the range and the destructive size will be the large end.

The destructive interference size is intended to be used for layout, and thus has ABI impact. The default value is not expected to be stable, and on some targets varies with -mtune , so use of this variable in a context where ABI stability is important, such as the public interface of a library, is strongly discouraged; if it is used in that context, users can stabilize the value using this option. The minimum ratio between the number of instructions and the number of prefetches to enable prefetching in a loop.

The minimum ratio between the number of instructions and the number of memory references to enable prefetching in a loop. However, if bugs in the canonical type system are causing compilation failures, set this value to 0 to disable canonical types.

Switch initialization conversion refuses to create arrays that are bigger than switch-conversion-max-branch-ratio times the number of branches in the switch. Maximum length of the partial antic set computed during the tree partial redundancy elimination optimization -ftree-pre when optimizing at -O3 and above.

For some sorts of source code the enhanced partial redundancy elimination optimization can run away, consuming all of the memory available on the host machine. This parameter sets a limit on the length of the sets that are computed, which prevents the runaway behavior.

Setting a value of 0 for this parameter allows an unlimited set length. Maximum loop depth that is value-numbered optimistically. When the limit hits the innermost rpo-vn-max-loop-depth loops and the outermost loop in the loop nest are value-numbered optimistically and the remaining ones not. Maximum number of alias-oracle queries we perform when looking for redundancies for loads and stores. If this limit is hit the search is aborted and the load or store is not considered redundant.

The number of queries is algorithmically limited to the number of stores on all paths from the load to the function entry.

IRA uses regional register allocation by default. If a function contains more loops than the number given by this parameter, only at most the given number of the most frequently-executed loops form regions for regional register allocation.

Although IRA uses a sophisticated algorithm to compress the conflict table, the table can still require excessive amounts of memory for huge functions. If the conflict table for a function could be more than the size in MB given by this parameter, the register allocator instead uses a faster, simpler, and lower-quality algorithm that does not require building a pseudo-register conflict table.

IRA can be used to evaluate more accurate register pressure in loops for decisions to move loop invariants see -O3. The number of available registers reserved for some other purposes is given by this parameter. Default of the parameter is the best found from numerous experiments. Make IRA to consider matching constraint duplicated operand number heavily in all available alternatives for preferred register class. Otherwise, it means IRA will check all available alternatives for preferred register class even if it has found some choice with an appropriate register class and respect the found qualified matching constraint.

LRA tries to reuse values reloaded in registers in subsequent insns. This optimization is called inheritance. EBB is used as a region to do this optimization. The parameter defines a minimal fall-through edge probability in percentage used to add BB to inheritance EBB in LRA.

The default value was chosen from numerous runs of SPEC on x Loop invariant motion can be very expensive, both in compilation time and in amount of needed compile-time memory, with very large loops. Building data dependencies is expensive for very large loops. This parameter limits the number of data references in loops that are considered for data dependence analysis.

These large loops are no handled by the optimizations using loop data dependencies. Sets a maximum number of hash table slots to use during variable tracking dataflow analysis of any function. If this limit is exceeded with variable tracking at assignments enabled, analysis for that function is retried without it, after removing all debug insns from the function.

If the limit is exceeded even without debug insns, var tracking analysis is completely disabled for the function. Setting the parameter to zero makes it unlimited. Sets a maximum number of recursion levels when attempting to map variable names or debug temporaries to value expressions. This trades compilation time for more complete debug information. If this is set too low, value expressions that are available and could be represented in debug information may end up not being used; setting this higher may enable the compiler to find more complex debug expressions, but compile time and memory use may grow.

Sets a threshold on the number of debug markers e. begin stmt markers to avoid complexity explosion at inlining or expanding to RTL.

If a function has more such gimple stmts than the set limit, such stmts will be dropped from the inlined copy of a function, and from its RTL expansion.

Use uids starting at this parameter for nondebug insns. The range below the parameter is reserved exclusively for debug insns created by -fvar-tracking-assignments , but debug insns may get non-overlapping uids above it if the reserved range is exhausted. IPA-SRA replaces a pointer which is known not be NULL with one or more new parameters only when the probability in percent, relative to function entry of it being dereferenced is higher than this parameter.

IPA-SRA replaces a pointer to an aggregate with one or more new parameters only when their cumulative size is less or equal to ipa-sra-ptr-growth-factor times the size of the original pointer parameter. Additional maximum allowed growth of total size of new parameters that ipa-sra replaces a pointer to an aggregate with, if it points to a local variable that the caller only writes to and passes it as an argument to other functions.

自定义博客皮肤 VIP专享. 最后的最后由本人水平所限,难免有错误以及不足之处, 屏幕前的靓仔靓女们 如有发现,恳请指出!你轻轻地点了个赞,那将在我的心里世界增添一颗明亮而耀眼的星!. Hook就是在这些流程任意环节插入自己的代码,让浏览器先执行自己的代码 然后再执行原本网站的hook在以下流程中可以做的事情:hook在以下流程中可以做的事情上下文:表示一个环境(js上下文就是v8引擎,浏览器是不同的页签就是不同的上下文,js中的eval还是在一个上下文。只是虚拟机、)作用域:控制变量所生效的位置。作用域是更小的一个级别 处于上下文中结果如下:解释器是如何处理这段代码:首先解释器知道var xuhss在内存中声明了一个全局变量数组保存了xuhss,以后用的话,就到这个数组中找。如果数. php请求里面获取的c第三个参数是js的crc版本数据校验值 是从get.

Ws和Wss的区别相当于http和https的区别,如果你想写一个聊天页面,需要频繁请求后台接口 还需要设置间隔时间(每隔1s发送一个请求) 才能拿到后台服务器的数据,因为http是轮询方式,只有请求完成后,才能拿到结果,只有客户端能发请求,所以说 要轮询。缺点就是占用服务器的性能?更好的方案就是websocket,它是浏览器实现的。浏览器在底层升级http协议,从http协议升级到websocket只需要添加几个头部信息就可以完成升级。. HTML5 的 canvas 元素使用 JavaScript 在网页上绘制图像。画布是一个矩形区域,您可以控制其每一像素。就是位图操作,可以理解为一个画图工具。可以任意对每个像素点进行任意操作之前讲解有一种断点类型叫做 事件监听断点,里面可以对canvas进行监听CanvasCreate canvas context 创建事件都选创建事件断点后,再刷页面断在这个地方:这里的代码用了流程平坦化打乱了最后的最后。. 将你的预期值和实际值进行比较,如果不一样,就是这种debugger 只能通过浏览器调用的堆栈区分出正确的逻辑。通过将editbreakpoint设置为false 可以禁用这个调试。通过hook方式,将运行的函数设为空就可以跳过debugger了。最好的方式就是不要被识别出来调试,可以通过下hook解决。非虚拟机的方式不会跳转 到一个vm的页面。在eval里面运行debugger.

我们的目的为了让js代码运行起来。可以不需要解密,将代码扣出来运行就可以。任何一个js类型的变量结果 加上一个字符串 ,只会变成字符串。所以这个调试起来很麻烦 只能单步调试 还是用解密工具解密。通过这种特性 可以组合成各种各样的加密方式。这个的原理就是将各种字符串加起来。2个值通过 运算会变成0或者1. js默认 支持Unicode的。所以支持所有的国家语种。有没有哪些国家的和O很像但不是O,和0很像但不是0,和p很像但不是p所以可以用这个相近的符号进行代码混淆。. 能修改输出js运行当中的一些变量的值能下断点批量监听一些变量值当渲染时,样式发生改变,会触发DOM断点它一般在 用户触发了某个事件 时,段下来。执行的比较考前,距离加密函数比较远。所以无法根据栈去快速定位。它的优点时定位的比较准。清空Dom断点最后的最后由本人水平所限,难免有错误以及不足之处, 屏幕前的靓仔靓女们 如有发现,恳请指出!你轻轻地点了个赞,那将在我的心里世界增添一颗明亮而耀眼的星!. 通过本地运行js代码那 实现脱离浏览器后 能够实现和浏览器上运行加密js的效果。网站上完全都是JavaScript实现的加密,我们的目的要知道加密的整个过程,并且实现这个加密的过程,拿到和浏览器一样的加密的结果。得到加密的结果之后就可以跳过浏览器,本地直接给服务器发送加密数据,从而直接获取服务器响应的结果。.

页面中有很多事件,比如说鼠标按下,滚动条滑动。最后的最后由本人水平所限,难免有错误以及不足之处, 屏幕前的靓仔靓女们 如有发现,恳请指出!你轻轻地点了个赞,那将在我的心里世界增添一颗明亮而耀眼的星!. 日常的web自动化过程中,我们常常用python selenium库来操纵Chrome浏览器实现网页的自动化。这其中有个比较头疼的问题:Chrome的更新频率非常频繁,与之对应的Chromedriver版本也必须相应更新。如果两者版本的主版本号相差超过1,selenium则会报异常. 如何在实体手机上,保证手机能够正常运行uiautomator2,并安装ATX-agent。以小米手机为例子,首先打开 设置-更多设置-开启开发者模式。如果初始化完成后,发现手机并没有安装ATXagent应用。说明设备未认证(unauthorized),此时,当你看到这个,就说明手机安装成功了环境。需要记得,将 USB安装 勾选上。. TA创建的收藏夹 TA关注的收藏夹. RGB颜色,例如: AFAFAF. 预览 取消 提交.

上一步 保存. 博客 资源 收藏 关注. 只看原创 排序: 按最后发布时间 按访问量 RSS订阅. 原创 Python量化交易实战教程汇总 B站配套视频教程观看设计适合自己并能适应市场的交易策略,才是量化交易的灵魂课程亲手带你设计并实现两种交易策略,快速培养你的策略思维能力择时策略:通过这个策略学会如何利用均线,创建择时策略,优化股票买入卖出的时间点。选股策略:掌握选股策略的核心逻辑,并基于收益率创建动量选股策略,并验证其有效性。手把手带你打造一个易扩展、更安全、效率更高的量化交易系统第三方平台大而全,不易扩展,效率还差,信息安全也是大问题,打造自己的交易平台才是更优解所有文章目录Python量化交易实战双均线策略股 原创 Js逆向教程AST Babel插件最简单修改值示例 最后的最后由本人水平所限,难免有错误以及不足之处, 屏幕前的靓仔靓女们 如有发现,恳请指出!你轻轻地点了个赞,那将在我的心里世界增添一颗明亮而耀眼的星! 原创 Js逆向教程vscode无环境联调 最后的最后由本人水平所限,难免有错误以及不足之处, 屏幕前的靓仔靓女们 如有发现,恳请指出!你轻轻地点了个赞,那将在我的心里世界增添一颗明亮而耀眼的星! 原创 Js逆向教程Hook基础 Hook就是在这些流程任意环节插入自己的代码,让浏览器先执行自己的代码 然后再执行原本网站的hook在以下流程中可以做的事情:hook在以下流程中可以做的事情上下文:表示一个环境(js上下文就是v8引擎,浏览器是不同的页签就是不同的上下文,js中的eval还是在一个上下文。只是虚拟机、)作用域:控制变量所生效的位置。作用域是更小的一个级别 处于上下文中结果如下:解释器是如何处理这段代码:首先解释器知道var xuhss在内存中声明了一个全局变量数组保存了xuhss,以后用的话,就到这个数组中找。如果数 php请求 原创 Js逆向教程websocket介绍 Ws和Wss的区别相当于http和https的区别,如果你想写一个聊天页面,需要频繁请求后台接口 还需要设置间隔时间(每隔1s发送一个请求) 才能拿到后台服务器的数据,因为http是轮询方式,只有请求完成后,才能拿到结果,只有客户端能发请求,所以说 要轮询。缺点就是占用服务器的性能?更好的方案就是websocket,它是浏览器实现的。浏览器在底层升级http协议,从http协议升级到websocket只需要添加几个头部信息就可以完成升级。 1.

原创 Js逆向教程极验滑块 实现加密算法的逻辑 还是和上节课一样,针对这个网址。 原创 Js逆向教程极验滑块 找到w加密位置 最后的最后由本人水平所限,难免有错误以及不足之处, 屏幕前的靓仔靓女们 如有发现,恳请指出!你轻轻地点了个赞,那将在我的心里世界增添一颗明亮而耀眼的星! 原创 Js逆向教程滑块流程 极验 HTML5 的 canvas 元素使用 JavaScript 在网页上绘制图像。画布是一个矩形区域,您可以控制其每一像素。就是位图操作,可以理解为一个画图工具。可以任意对每个像素点进行任意操作之前讲解有一种断点类型叫做 事件监听断点,里面可以对canvas进行监听CanvasCreate canvas context 创建事件都选创建事件断点后,再刷页面断在这个地方:这里的代码用了流程平坦化打乱了最后的最后。 原创 Js逆向教程反调试 将你的预期值和实际值进行比较,如果不一样,就是这种debugger 只能通过浏览器调用的堆栈区分出正确的逻辑。通过将editbreakpoint设置为false 可以禁用这个调试。通过hook方式,将运行的函数设为空就可以跳过debugger了。最好的方式就是不要被识别出来调试,可以通过下hook解决。非虚拟机的方式不会跳转 到一个vm的页面。在eval里面运行debugger.

原创 Js逆向教程FuckJs 我们的目的为了让js代码运行起来。可以不需要解密,将代码扣出来运行就可以。任何一个js类型的变量结果 加上一个字符串 ,只会变成字符串。所以这个调试起来很麻烦 只能单步调试 还是用解密工具解密。通过这种特性 可以组合成各种各样的加密方式。这个的原理就是将各种字符串加起来。2个值通过 运算会变成0或者1. jsfuck有对应的解密工具及。我们这里只是讲解js的混淆机制。可以看到只有这3种字符。 原创 Js逆向教程常见混淆AA和JJ js默认 支持Unicode的。所以支持所有的国家语种。有没有哪些国家的和O很像但不是O,和0很像但不是0,和p很像但不是p所以可以用这个相近的符号进行代码混淆。 原创 Js逆向教程常见代码混淆 最后的最后由本人水平所限,难免有错误以及不足之处, 屏幕前的靓仔靓女们 如有发现,恳请指出!你轻轻地点了个赞,那将在我的心里世界增添一颗明亮而耀眼的星! 原创 Js逆向教程常见的加密方式 最后的最后由本人水平所限,难免有错误以及不足之处, 屏幕前的靓仔靓女们 如有发现,恳请指出!你轻轻地点了个赞,那将在我的心里世界增添一颗明亮而耀眼的星! 原创 Js逆向教程跟值技巧 一般不会出现在jquery成熟的第3仓库里面。jquery是封装好的成熟的第3仓库,一般不会去修改它。因为如果jquery版本提升了,还要去改jquery。 原创 Js逆向教程方法栈 最后的最后由本人水平所限,难免有错误以及不足之处, 屏幕前的靓仔靓女们 如有发现,恳请指出!你轻轻地点了个赞,那将在我的心里世界增添一颗明亮而耀眼的星! 原创 Js逆向教程js逆向断点的种类及介绍 能修改输出js运行当中的一些变量的值能下断点批量监听一些变量值当渲染时,样式发生改变,会触发DOM断点它一般在 用户触发了某个事件 时,段下来。执行的比较考前,距离加密函数比较远。所以无法根据栈去快速定位。它的优点时定位的比较准。清空Dom断点最后的最后由本人水平所限,难免有错误以及不足之处, 屏幕前的靓仔靓女们 如有发现,恳请指出!你轻轻地点了个赞,那将在我的心里世界增添一颗明亮而耀眼的星! 原创 Js逆向教程明确js逆向的目标 通过本地运行js代码那 实现脱离浏览器后 能够实现和浏览器上运行加密js的效果。网站上完全都是JavaScript实现的加密,我们的目的要知道加密的整个过程,并且实现这个加密的过程,拿到和浏览器一样的加密的结果。得到加密的结果之后就可以跳过浏览器,本地直接给服务器发送加密数据,从而直接获取服务器响应的结果。 原创 Js逆向教程浏览器调试工具-Application页面 本地网站应用缓存页面。 原创 Js逆向教程浏览器调试工具-Source面板 切换到source面板,对于source面板,需要打开搜索面板才能发挥出完整的功能。 原创 Js逆向教程浏览器调试工具-Network面板 最后的最后由本人水平所限,难免有错误以及不足之处, 屏幕前的靓仔靓女们 如有发现,恳请指出!你轻轻地点了个赞,那将在我的心里世界增添一颗明亮而耀眼的星! 原创 Js逆向教程浏览器调试工具-可视化的Elements 页面中有很多事件,比如说鼠标按下,滚动条滑动。最后的最后由本人水平所限,难免有错误以及不足之处, 屏幕前的靓仔靓女们 如有发现,恳请指出!你轻轻地点了个赞,那将在我的心里世界增添一颗明亮而耀眼的星! 原创 python一招自动搞定Chromedriver爬虫驱动的更新 日常的web自动化过程中,我们常常用python selenium库来操纵Chrome浏览器实现网页的自动化。这其中有个比较头疼的问题:Chrome的更新频率非常频繁,与之对应的Chromedriver版本也必须相应更新。如果两者版本的主版本号相差超过1,selenium则会报异常.

那有没有好的办法解决这个问题呢?方法当然有,首先我们需要知道哪里可以下载到不同版本的文件。这里推荐两个网站,国内首选淘宝的镜像仓库:数据更新会比谷歌官方稍慢;可供下载的版本有时不全; 原创 如何安装MockingBird-AI拟声: 5秒内克隆您的声音并生成任意语音内容 作者:虚坏叔叔早餐店不会开到晚上,想吃的人早就来了!😄。 原创 Quasar — 免费开源的Windows远程管理工具 适用于Windows的免费开源远程控制管理工具Quasar是一种用C#编码的快速轻量级远程管理工具。可用于管理工作到员工监控等。Quasar提供高稳定性和易用的用户界面,是您理想的远程控制管理解决方案。 原创 AutoJs4. 原创 将你的 Python 脚本转换为命令行程序 哈喽,大家好,今天给大家介绍一下,如何通过Python自动整理文件。 原创 如何通过Python自动整理文件? 哈喽,大家好,今天给大家介绍一下,如何通过Python自动整理文件。 原创 如何用python自动化微信小程序 本文介绍了整个微信小程序的自动化过程。我已经将全部源码上传到后台上,关注文章底部公众号后回复「kja」即可获得。你的肯定是我最大的鼓励和支持。 2.

原创 如何在实体手机上,保证手机能够正常运行uiautomator2,并安装ATX-agent 如何在实体手机上,保证手机能够正常运行uiautomator2,并安装ATX-agent。以小米手机为例子,首先打开 设置-更多设置-开启开发者模式。如果初始化完成后,发现手机并没有安装ATXagent应用。说明设备未认证(unauthorized),此时,当你看到这个,就说明手机安装成功了环境。需要记得,将 USB安装 勾选上。 原创 address localhost is already in use(端口被占用)Windows系统问题解决 在学习编程的过程中,我们或许会遇到端口被占用的情况,因而导致程序启动不了。这种情况只需要找到占用端口的进程,然后在中关闭改进程即可解决问题。后面补加的图。 原创 mitmproxy的介绍以及配置过程中的问题 提示:以下是本篇文章正文内容,下面案例可供参考。 FinalShell 中文安装包 FinalShell 一款可以替代XShell 的ssh 客户端软件,不仅是 ssh 客户端软件,还是功能强大的开发及运维的工具。可以满足我们的工作需求 主要特性:.

net版本问题: 检查是否安装. reres chrome插件v1. app自动化课程的简介和介绍 app自动化课程的简介和介绍. windows 生成RSA公钥和私钥openssl. exe工具 1、打开 openssl. 多线程解决mfc对话框未响应、卡死问题 多线程解决mfc对话框未响应、卡死问题. 爆款少儿青少年scratch编程第4课:狮子钻火圈 可以直接运行。A53课程制作 爆款爆款少儿青少年scratch编程是包括教程制作完整课程,里面包括教学步骤,教学视频,教学素材,教学课件pdf,教学课件word,课程源码。课程内容大致如下所示:资源:. 爆款少儿青少年scratch编程第5课:熊熊吃什么 可以直接运行。A53课程制作 爆款爆款少儿青少年scratch编程是包括教程制作完整课程,里面包括教学步骤,教学视频,教学素材,教学课件pdf,教学课件word,课程源码。课程内容大致如下所示:资源:. 爆款少儿青少年scratch编程第18课:7的倍数(下) 可以直接运行。A53课程制作 爆款爆款少儿青少年scratch编程是包括教程制作完整课程,里面包括教学步骤,教学视频,教学素材,教学课件pdf,教学课件word,课程源码。课程内容大致如下所示:资源:.

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WebAssembly/binaryen,Table of Contents

Web14/12/ · This form of the if statement effectively combines together a call to isa and a call to cast into one statement, which is very convenient.. Note that the dyn_cast operator, like C++’s dynamic_cast or Java’s instanceof operator, can be abused. In particular, you should not use big chained if/then/else blocks to check for lots of different Web21/09/ · Visual Studio includes component-based development tools, such as Visual C#, Visual J#, Visual Basic, and Visual C++, as well as a number of additional technologies to simplify team-based design, development, and deployment of your solutions Web21/09/ · It features a simple interface with many customizable options: Download multiple files at one time; Download large files quickly and reliably hosted online in MSDN under the Visual Studio node. This includes documentation for Visual Basic, C#, and Visual C++ as well as the Visual Studio documentation. System Requirements Supported WebC++ Json解析库CJsonObject的详细使用(跨平台无须编译成库) cry 谢谢,很实用的。有没有json与MAP之间转换的代码呢? 有关webscraper的问题,看这个就够了. m0_ 你好,如果滚动加载的页面下只想爬前n条,应该怎么设置呀?(因为需要爬二级页面,但它貌似会 WebPlace each function or data item into its own section in the output file if the target supports arbitrary sections. The name of the function or the name of the data item determines the section’s name in the output file. Use these options on systems where the linker can perform optimizations to improve locality of reference in the instruction WebGitHub: Where the world builds software · GitHub ... read more

mod extension: they do depend on the compiler used and so should never be included in a package. This warning is comparable to warning about every identifier that contains the letter O because it might be confused with the digit 0, and so is not the default, but may be useful as a local coding convention if the programming environment cannot be fixed to display these characters distinctly. You have not selected any file s to download. Do not warn about usage of deprecated features. Second, future versions of compilers may behave differently including updates to quite old series so for example -Werror and specializations can make a package non-installable under a future version. If you want to warn about code that uses the uninitialized value of the variable in its own initializer, use the -Winit-self option. Compile with something like javac -target 1.

amd, arm, intel. exta log file foo. Evaluating foo::f will cause package foo to be loaded, but not attached, if it was not loaded already—this can be an advantage in delaying the loading of a rarely used package. For instance, warn for the following code:. Sets a threshold on the number of debug markers e.

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